Sense Organs

Answer the following questions using ONLY the powerpoint attached.

1. Mention 4 pathological conditions of the eye, define them, explain the signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of each one.

2. Divide the following terms, label the component parts and give the meaning of the medical term:

a. hemianopsia

b. anisoconea

c. conjunctivitis

d. meringotomy

e. tympanoplasty

3. Two symptoms of the at that can occur alone or in conjunction with other conditions are Tinnitus and Vertigo. Explain what each condition means (in one paragraph each)

4. Mention three medical terms that have the suffix -opia and two medical terms with the suffic -cusis. Divide them, label them and give their meaning.

5. What is tonometry, slit lamp microscopy, LASIK, vitrectomy, cochlear implants and audiometry. Explain
Chapter 17
Sense Organs: The Eye and the Ear

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Learning Objectives

Identify locations and functions of the major parts of the eye and ear.
Name the combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes most commonly used to describe these organs and their parts.
Describe the pathologic conditions that may affect the eye and ear.
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Learning Objectives (cont’d.)

Identify clinical procedures that pertain to ophthalmology and otology.
Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.
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Chapter 17
Lesson 17.1

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Introduction

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Light and sound applied to the sense organs of the eye and ear activate receptors that send signals to the appropriate brain regions in the cortex where they are translated into images and sounds.

What types of receptors exist to process information about our environment?

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The Eye

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What are the parts of the eye labeled in the diagram?

What are the functions of the different parts of the eye?

See Vocabulary (pp. 674-676) for definitions of the parts of the eye and their functions.

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The Eye

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What are the parts of the eye labeled in the diagram?

What are the functions of the different parts of the eye?

See Vocabulary (pp. 674-676) for definitions of the parts of the eye and their functions.

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The Eye (cont’d.)

Pupil
Conjunctiva
Cornea
Sclera
Choroid
Iris
Ciliary body
Lens
Fundus
Anterior chamber
Aqueous humor
Vitreous chamber
Vitreous humor
Retina
Optic nerve
Optic disc
Macula
Fovea centralis
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Why are corneal transplants often successful?

How many cones and rods are in the retina? (There are approximately 6.5 million cones and 120 million rods in the retina.)

There are three types of cones, each stimulated by one of the primary colors of light (red, blue, and green).

Which cones are most affected by color blindness? (either the red or green cones)

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Visual Pathways From Retina to Cortex

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Describe how light travels through the eye by following the pathways of the color coordinated tracts and visual fields.

What might happen if there are lesions in areas along the pathway leading to the right and left cerebral cortices?

Lesions of the cortical areas of the occipital lobe will likewise cause visual disturbance in the areas of the visual field where the information is normally interpreted by the brain.

See Figure 17-5 (p. 674) for pathway of light rays from cornea to cerebral cortex.

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QUICK QUIZ:

The soft, jelly-like material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball….

sclera

vitreous humor

aqueous humor

fovea centralis

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CORRECT Answer is B, vitreous humor

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STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

aque/o water
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body
Combining Form Meaning

COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, AND TERMINOLOGY

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STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

dacry/o tears, tear duct
ir/o iris
irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears
ocul/o eye
Combining Form Meaning

COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, AND TERMINOLOGY

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STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye, vision
optic/o eye, vision
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc
phac/o lens of the eye
Combining Form Meaning

COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, AND TERMINOLOGY

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STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

phak/o lens of the eye
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera (white of the eye)
uve/o uvea
vitre/o glassy
Combining Form Meaning

COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, AND TERMINOLOGY

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CONDITIONS

ambly/o dull, dim
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
nyct/o night
Combining Form Meaning

COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, AND TERMINOLOGY

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CONDITIONS

phot/o light
presby/o old age
scot/o darkness
xer/o dry
Combining Form Meaning

COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, AND TERMINOLOGY

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CONDITIONS

-opia vision
-opsia vision
-tropia to turn
Suffix Meaning

COMBINING FORMS, SUFFIXES, AND TERMINOLOGY

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QUICK QUIZ:

Which term means inflammation of the eyelid?

ophthalmoplegia

keratitis

blepharitis

blepharoptosis

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CORRECT Answer is C, blepharitis

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Errors of Refraction

Astigmatism: defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
Hyperopia: farsightedness
Myopia: nearsightedness
Presbyopia: impairment of vision due to old age reducing lens accommodation
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Do any of the students have any of these conditions? What are the causes?

How are these conditions corrected? (The following slide provides images of the errors and the correction.)

What is lens accommodation? (the refractory adjustment resulting when the muscles of the ciliary body produce flattening of the lens [for distant vision] and thickening and rounding [for close vision])

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Errors of Refraction (cont’d.)

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The dashed lines in B and C indicate the contour and size of the normal eye.

What error of refraction is associated with presbyopia? (an inability to adjust the lens for accommodation to near vision)

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Cataract: clouding of the lens

ABNORMAL CONDITIONS

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What is the surgical treatment for cataracts? How can vision be corrected in this process?

Surgical removal of the lens and implantation of an artificial lens behind the iris are treatments for cataracts.

If surgery isn’t possible, are there other treatments?

If an intraocular lens cannot be inserted, the patient may wear eyeglasses or contact lenses to help refraction.

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ABNORMAL CONDITIONS

Chalazion: small, hard, cystic mass on eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of sebaceous gland along margin of eyelid

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What is the treatment for this condition?

Chalazions often require incision and drainage.

Besides chalazion, what are some…

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